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The maternal mortality ratio, the number of women dying of pregnancy-related causes, stands at 488 deaths per 100,000 live births. This ranks Kenya among the 10 most dangerous countries for a woman to give birth in the world. Limited use of skilled care, inadequate skills among health care providers and low health facility coverage are the main reasons for this high number.

HIV prevalence dropped from 7.1 % in 2007 to 5.6 % in 2012, although new infections remain high, at nearly 100,000 per year. The HIV prevalence among the 15 to 24 cohort was 2.1 % in 2012, a decrease from 3.8 % in 2007. Within this age group, girls are at a four times higher risk of HIV infection than boys.

The drivers of the epidemic are discordant couples, multiple concurrent partners, and most-at-risk population groups, which include sex workers, prisoners, and truckers, men who have sex with men, intravenous drug users and fishing communities. Condom use is low with only 5 % of women and 14 % of men having reported using condoms consistently with persons of unknown status.